Read abstracts of our scientific publications and take a look at our posters presented at congresses by our Clearblue Healthcare Professional Team

  • Fertility and Ovulation
  • Pregnancy
  • Contraception


Healthcare Professionals Publications and Articles


Publications & Articles


Survey of Usage and Awareness of Contraception Across Four European Countries

Purpose: to examine the usage and awareness of different forms of contraception in the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain.


Fertility 2021 Poster - Changing plans for a baby during the Covid-19 pandemic

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought a great deal of uncertainty to many women’s lives. This study sought to understand whether it had impacted their plans for a baby.



Fertility 2021 Poster - Timing of urinary estrone-3-glucuronide tests

The onset of a woman’s fertile phase can be identified by an increase in concentration of urinary metabolites of estradiol, including E1-3G (estrone-3-glucuronide). This study sought to determine E1-3G variation throughout the day.



Fertility 2021 Poster - Home testing for timing of natural frozen embryo transfer (nFET) procedures; a solution for reducing clinic visits during Covid-19

This study sought to determine whether timing of nFET using home ovulation tests (OT) is a viable alternative to multiple clinic visits.



ACOG 2020 Poster - hCG and FSH Levels During Early Pregnancy and Reproductive Aging

Low levels of hCG are known to be co-produced with FSH during reproductive aging (during peri-menopause and menopause). A missed period could be indicative of pregnancy or peri-menopause for woman in later reproductive life, so understanding the reference ranges for hCG is important.



ASRM 2019 Poster - Path to pregnancy. A multinational survey of women’s experiences and expectations when planning pregnancy

This research aimed to understand more about women’s path to pregnancy in five countries; USA, UK, Germany, Italy and China.



ACOG-2019 Poster - Fertility Knowledge of Women in the United States of America

This study sought to assess the understanding of fertility among women in the USA.



ESHRE 2019 Poster P634 - Randomised controlled trial of connected ovulation test system demonstrates double the chances of pregnancy in first cycle and reveals other factors affecting pregnancy likelihood.

This study sought to determine whether the Clearblue Connected Ovulation Test System increases chances of pregnancy, and investigated what other factors were related to likelihood of natural conception.


ESHRE 2019 Poster P485 - Cycle Apps - help or confusion? Understanding women's perception towards cycle tracking apps.

This study sought to understand how women perceive the fertility predictions that are provided through calendar-based cycle tracking apps. 


ESHRE 2019 Poster P499 - Five Country Study of women's attitudes and knowledge regards fertility

This study sought to understand women's attitudes towards becoming pregnant, how good their fertility knowledge is, and determine whether it varies between countries.


ACOG 2019 Poster 6M - Fertility Knowledge of Women in the United States

A study of 1000 US women sought to understand their knowledge of fertility. This study highlights a gap in basic fertility knowledge in many women. Greater awareness and further education are required to equip women with a better understanding of their own fertility in order for them to maximize their chances of conception.


Fertility 2019 Poster P099 - hCG levels can decline pre- or post-onset of bleeding in early pregnancy loss.

Non-progressive rise in human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) followed by decline is indicative of early pregnancy loss. Decline of hCG has been observed to occur before bleeding, but the proportion of losses identifiable prior to bleeding has not been established. This analysis examined changes in daily urinary hCG levels in relation to onset of bleeding.


Fertility 2019 Poster P193 - Double the chances of conception in first cycle of use with new connected ovulation test.

The aim of this study was to demonstrate that using the Clearblue Connected Ovulation Test System increases chances of pregnancy


Fertility 2019 Poster P043 - Connected ovulation testing; user's experience.

This study sought to examine whether a new connected ovulation test with an app provides additional benefits to women trying to conceive


Fertility 2019 Poster P042 - New connected ovulation test provides big data on menstrual cycles

In one of the biggest datasets ever examined on menstrual cycles in women seeking to conceive, the cycle length distribution and variability mirrors previous studies. Cycles far shorter or longer than expected could be a result of the users’ poor understanding of their cycle or cycle irregularity. The Clearblue Connected Ovulation Test System therefore provides women with more insight into their cycles and enables them to accurately time intercourse when trying to conceive.


Can apps and calendar methods predict ovulation with accuracy?

The accuracy of prediction of ovulation by cycle apps and published calendar methods was determined by comparing to true probability of ovulation. Read the full article here


ACOG 2018 Poster 19G - Use of cycle length alone to predict ovulation, as utilized by some Apps, is highly inaccurate

Women trying to conceive will often use methods to time intercourse. This study sought to determine whether accurate prediction is possible based only on cycle length characteristics


ACOG 2018 Poster 10F - First Bluetooth® connected ovulation test with App to predict ovulation and track cycles

This study examined women’s usage and experience of the new Clearblue™ Connected Ovulation Test System


Fertility 2018 Poster - The every-sample urine collection study; when is the best time to do LH tests?

This study aimed to determine whether there is an optimum test time for LH


AEPU Annual Meeting 2017 - Proportion of unidentified early pregnancy loss in a population of women trying to conceive

The rate of recognised miscarriages is approximately 20%. This may under-represent the true figure, as it only considers loss after pregnancy recognition. We aimed to determine the extent of unrecognised early pregnancy loss in women trying to conceive.


ASRM 2016 Poster - Vaginal Lubricant Use Among Women Trying to Conceive

This study sought to assess the prevalence of lubricant use in women of reproductive age who are actively trying to conceive.  It examined whether vaginal dryness is a common problem in women trying to conceive, and whether women may benefit from a ‘fertility-friendly’ personal lubricant to facilitate comfortable intercourse


ESHRE 2017 Poster - Can likelihood of natural pregnancy be determined from demographics and LH surge characteristics

This study examined whether demographic information, together with LH surge characteristics, can predict the likelihood of women conceiving naturally


RCOG 2016 Poster - Pituitary human chorionic gonadotrophin in reproductive ageing

This study examined the relationship between pituitary hCG and reproductive hormones in daily urine samples from pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women.


RCOG 2016 Poster - Urinary levels of intact, free beta and beta core fragment of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in early pregnancy

This study sought to improve the understanding of the levels of free-ß and ß-core-hCG in viable pregnancies.


ESHRE 2016 Poster - Urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels in early pregnancies correlate with serum hCG and may be used for the monitoring of early pregnancy well-being

This study evaluated the validity of using urinary hCG rise and fall for monitoring of early pregnancy well-being


ACOG 2015 Poster - Analysis of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels in normal and failing pregnancies

This study examined daily urinary hCG concentrations to assess pregnancy viability.


ACOG 2015 Poster - Urinary levels of intact, free beta and beta core fragment of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in early pregnancy

This study sought to improve the understanding of the levels of free-beta and beta-core-hCG in viable pregnancies.


FIGO 2015 Poster - Agreement between urinary luteinising hormone, results from Clearblue Advanced Ovulation Test and ultrasound-observed ovulation

This study examined the performance of the Clearblue Advanced Digital Ovulation Test compared with ultrasound-observed ovulation.


FIGO 2015 Poster - Anti-Mullerian hormone levels, numbers and sizes of antral follicles in regularly menstruating women referenced to true ovulation day

This study sought to establish whether AMH levels vary throughout the menstrual cycle in women of reproductive age and whether AMH production is linked to follicle size.


Anovulatory cycles

Anovulatory cycles are common, even amongst women with regular periods. This overview of anovulation includes information about prevalence, symptoms, what causes it, and when it affects Clearblue products.


Overview of ovulation and planning pregnancy

An overview of ovulation, the hormones that control ovulation, the methods available to women to help identify ovulation, and their utility in planning pregnancy. Includes tracking hormones using an ovulation test or fertility monitor, calendar calculations, apps, basal body temperature and observation of cervical secretions.


Attitudes and opinions of women using a novel fertility monitor whilst trying to conceive

A summary of women’s opinions of using a monitor to time intercourse for the purposes of
achieving pregnancy.


Review of methodology for determining the day of urinary luteinising hormone surge

This research aims to determine the best objective method for defining the LH surge.


First urinary reproductive hormone normograms referenced to independently determined ovulation day

These are the first urinary reproductive hormone normograms referenced to the actual day of ovulation, and therefore provide the most robust reference ranges to examine menstrual cycle endocrinology.


Performance of nine home urinary hCG(Human chorionic gonadotropin) pregnancy tests.

Do currently available at home pregnancy tests (HPTs) meet their claimed sensitivity for hCG in early pregnancy testing?


Comparison of home pregnancy test with weeks estimator and ultrasound crown rump measurement to predict delivery date

The objective of this study was to compare prediction of final delivery date by Clearblue Advanced Pregnancy Test in comparison to ultrasound.


Impact of digital home ovulation test usage on stress, psychological wellbeing and quality of life during evaluation of subfertility: a randomised controlled trial

This randomised, controlled trial examined use of Ovulation Tests on self-reported levels of stress, psychological wellbeing and quality of life, and biochemical measures of stress, in new attendees at a fertility clinic.


Comparison of reference measures of gestational age with urinary hCG

The daily levels of early hCG could provide information on pregnancy progression; however, most published studies suffer from using last menstrual period (LMP) as the reference for dating of pregnancy, leading to broad value ranges.  We studied daily urinary hCG levels stratified by two accurate references for pregnancy duration; first trimester Crown Rump Length (CRL) measurement and luteinizing hormone (LH) surge as a marker for ovulation, and LMP.


Effect of format on ability to conduct and interpret home pregnancy tests by untrained users

Clinical analytical tests are now often being marketed to untrained people, in formats normally only used in the laboratory environment. For example, although many home pregnancy tests are designed to be used by women with no training, direct copies of laboratory tests in strip and cassette formats are also available.  The objective of this randomised study was to determine whether these types of tests could be used accurately by a lay person, in comparison to tests specifically designed for home use.


Multi-national survey of women’s knowledge and attitudes towards fertility and pregnancy

Basic understanding of reproductive health is of value to women before they start a family. However, there is little published information on how knowledgeable women are regarding fertility and pregnancy and their attitudes towards these topics. This study examined women’s knowledge, how they prepared for pregnancy and where they sourced their information.